In a up to date find out about revealed in Environmental Analysis, researchers assess a number of possible biomarkers for self-documented lean fish, fatty fish, shellfish, and general seafood consumption amongst pregnant feminine individuals of the Dietary Affect at the Immunological Maturation All the way through Youth in Relation to the Surroundings (NICE) find out about in Sweden.

Find out about: Biomarkers of seafood consumption right through being pregnant – Pollution as opposed to fatty acids and micronutrients. Symbol Credit score: ESstock /


Seafood is enriched with fatty acids, proteins, hint components, and nutrients, the consumption of which right through being pregnant may just give a boost to toddler construction. A number of research have reported sure associations between day-to-day fish consumption right through being pregnant and neonatal cognition and start weight, which has additionally been inversely associated with the improvement of eczema and meals hypersensitive reactions amongst babies.

Seafood consumption is typically decided through inspecting questionnaire information; alternatively, questionnaire-based estimations is probably not very dependable. The provision of dependable seafood vitamin biomarkers may just additionally give a boost to the accuracy of measuring consumption measures and, in consequence, analysis high quality.

Importantly, seafood would possibly contain environment-polluting ingredients similar to arsenic and methylmercury. On the other hand, information on methylmercury as a seafood consumption biomarker are restricted.

In regards to the find out about

Within the provide find out about, researchers assess a number of possible seafood consumption biomarkers, together with selenium, long-chain omega 3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs), methylmercury, iodine, and more than a few compounds of arsenic amongst 549 pregnant NICE find out about individuals at 29 weeks gestation.

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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), selenium, methylmercury, iodine, trimethylarsine oxide, arsenocholine, arsenobetaine, general arsenic, inorganic-type metabolites, or arsenic ranges had been measured in urine and serum.

EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions in purple blood cells (RBCs) had been decided the use of gasoline chromatography. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) used to be used to decide selenium ranges in serum and RBCs, arsenic and mercury ranges in RBCs, in addition to more than a few arsenic-containing ingredients and iodine in urine.

Arsenic-comprising ingredients had been separated through ion alternate involving high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Biomarker information had been received the use of meals intake questionnaires that had been finished through the individuals at gestational week 34.

Biomarker ranges had been correlated with general seafood consumption and that of lean fish, shellfish, and fatty acid personally within the ultimate trimester. Pregnant women had been recruited between 2015 and 2018 from the Sunderby Clinic situated within the Norrbotten county of Sweden whilst present process common sonography at gestational weeks 18 and 19.

Handiest Norbotten county citizens who may just write and discuss Swedish and had been to ship within the Sunderby sanatorium had been incorporated within the research. The preliminary urine and blood samples had been received in week 29 of being pregnant. Knowledge on anthropometric and background variables had been retrieved from the start information.


A complete of 655 ladies had been recruited and after with the exception of 18 ladies with 2d pregnancies, 3 ladies who delivered twins, and one lady who withdrew sooner than find out about final touch, 633 ladies had been eligible.

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On the other hand, 599 ladies in the long run equipped serum and urine samples, and seafood consumption information used to be legitimate for 554 ladies. The median values for player age and seafood consumption in overdue being pregnant had been 30.5 years and 26 grams/day, respectively.

The median consumption of fatty fish, shellfish, and lean fish used to be 9.1, 4.1, and six.6 grams/day, respectively. Some of the individuals, 55% ate up seafood a few times weekly, while the consumption of fatty fish, shellfish, and lean fish used to be one to 3 occasions per thirty days amongst 44%, 47%, and 48%, respectively.

Handiest 4 of the individuals reported no seafood consumption right through the general months of being pregnant. Freshwater Salmonids like brown trouts had been ate up a couple of time every month through 23% and 11% of individuals sooner than and right through being pregnant, respectively.

The corresponding percentages for freshwater predator-type fish, together with perch and northerly, had been 10% and three%, respectively, while those percentages for brackish water fish, together with Baltic herring, had been 21% and 12%, respectively.

Iodine ranges in urine had been 54% larger amongst ladies who often ate up multivitamins with minerals.RBC and serological selenium ranges had been additionally larger amongst the ones eating multivitamin dietary supplements at 5% and 13%, respectively.

For ladies who ate up multivitamins with minerals day-to-day, the full arsenic and arsenobetaine concentrations in urine had been 65% and 108% upper, respectively. The median quantity of seafood ate up through the individuals used to be 184 grams weekly.

Day by day seafood consumption confirmed essentially the most tough correlations with RBC mercury concentrations, comprising basically methylmercury, general arsenic content material in RBCs, and arsenobetaine in urine.

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The biomarker ingredients confirmed sure correlations with the intake of shellfish, fatty fish, and lean fish. RBC DHA and serological selenium ranges confirmed correlations, albeit vulnerable, with basically fatty fish.

Amongst n-3 LCPUFA in RBCs, docosahexaenoic acid confirmed the best abundance right through being pregnant, with decrease ranges of docosapentaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Pregnant women eating excessive quantities of seafood had considerably larger ranges of the biomarkers, aside from docosapentaenoic acid ranges in RBCs and iodine ranges in urine. Within the urine of ladies with excessive seafood consumption, arsenobetaine, and trimethylarsine oxide had been 2.5-fold and three.5-fold larger, respectively.


Total, the find out about findings confirmed that the mercury content material in RBCs and arsenobetaine in urine may well be thought to be seafood intake biomarkers, as they correlated extra strongly as in comparison to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid ranges. On the other hand, the biomarkers’ relevance would possibly range through the seafood kind and quantity ate up.

Magazine reference:

  • Stråvik, M., Gustin, Ok., Barman, M., et al. (2023). Biomarkers of seafood consumption right through being pregnant – Pollution as opposed to fatty acids and micronutrients. Environmental Analysis. doi:10.1016/ j.envres.2023.115576.

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